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The following article is reprinted from New Horizons newsletter, published by the Brewer Science Library. Single copies of the article may be printed for the reader's personal research and study. Reproduction in any other manner, format or location is expressly prohibited.


Prostate Cancer:  Nutritional Supplements to Consider
by Christina White © 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION:

SECTION 1:    DIETARY CONSIDERATIONS:

        A.   Reducing An Inflammatory Aracadonic Acid Cascade
        B.   Low Glycemic – Low Insulin Spikes for Cancer Patients
        C.   Specific Foods May Lengthen or Shorten Lives of PC Patients
        D.   Dairy and Calcium Consumption – Does it Fuel Prostate Cancer?

SECTION 2:   VITAMINS for  PC

        A.   Vitamin D3 May Help Prevent and Treat Prostate Cancer
        B.   Vitamin C and K3 in Prostate Cancer Study – Apatone
        C.   Vitamin E: Gamma Tocopherol; Vit E Succinate; Delta+GammaTocotrienol
        D.   CoQ10

SECTION 3:  HERBAL & FOOD EXTRACTS for PC

        A.   7 Phytoestrogens Regulate PC Cancer Cell Growth in Test Tube
        B.   Pomegranate Punicaligins
        C.   Lycopene & Tomato Products
        D.   Soy Isoflavones
        E.   Green Tea Extract (EGCG)
        F.   DIM – diindolylmethane
        G.   PectaSol-C
        H.   Curcumin
        I.     5-Loxin Herbal Supplement Inhibits Lipoxygenase Pathway
        J.     Chinese Skullcap – Baicalein (inhibits 12-lipoxygenase pathway in PC cells)
        K.    Lignans from Flax Seeds
        L.     Sulphoraphane
        M.    Grapeseed and Muscadine Grape Skins

SECTION 4:  IMMUNE ENHANCEMENT

        A.  Activating Natural Killer Cells
        B.  Undenatured Whey Protein

SECTION 5:  INCREASING BONE INTEGRITY to PREVENT METASTASES

        A.  Prostate Cancer Doctors Strategies
        B.  Supplements that Help Form Strong Bones:
             1. Vitamin D3
             2. Strontium
             3. MK-7
             4. Calcium orotate
             5. Magnesium
            

SECTION 6:  HORMONE THERAPY CONSIDERATIONS            

        A.   Melatonin
        B.   Links to articles and slides by Dr. Charles Myers and Dr. Leibowietz
        C.   Progesterone


SECTION 7:  MISCELLANEOUS STRATEGIES + CONSIDERATIONS

        A.   LDN – Low Dose Naltrexone
        B.   Sodium Phenylbutyrate – Dr. Burzynski’s protocol
        C.   The Selenium Story

INTRODUCTION

PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER MAY BE DIFFERENT THAN TREATING IT

Some nutritional supplements have specific biological activity in preventing or reducing the progression of  prostate cancer.   

The literature on the possibility of preventing prostate cancer includes research on many key and well-known supplements such as:  vitamin D3, lycopene, green tea extracts, gamma E, pomegranate, and compounds from cruciferous vegetables or sprouts.  There are other supplements that may be less well-known and written about that also provide some potent activity against the development and progression of prostate cancer, such as vitamin K, melatonin,  zinc, ground flax seeds, curcumin, fish oils, CoQ10, 5-Loxin, Chinese skullcap and grapeseed extracts.     

Eating an anti-inflammatory diet, along with consumption of several of those key supplements may prevent prostate cancer in a significant segment of the population.   On the other hand, just supplementing one’s diet with a few key supplements, while continuing to consume the average American diet that contains high amounts of processed foods, sugar, fructose, white flour and foods high in arachidonic acid from meat, dairy and egg yolks, may create an internal biochemical environment that predisposes men to the development of this cancer. 

There are a few supplements and food based products that have demonstrated some encouraging results with both early and recurrent prostate cancer patients in clinical studies, such as vitamin D3, lycopene, and pomegranate.  Those are the products one will find most articles about because they are the ones with the most significant research.

This article attempts to include a wider base of all the supplements and dietary changes that may affect the outcome for prostate cancer patients.   Unfortunately, over the years, different research studies often end up presenting a contradictory picture, and confusion may result.  Even doctors that use supplements along with conventional therapy, end up changing their supplement recommendations as new research reveals new biochemical discoveries.    In the end, the PC patient will often have to make their own decision about which supplements they decide to take based on the research, because few urologists or oncologists include supplements in their treatment strategies.

Natural compounds work much more slowly than drugs do.  It might take many months to demonstrate significant effectiveness with a protocol of natural compounds.  These products might be much more helpful during a process of “watchful waiting”, where one has a low Gleason score and is not yet doing strong interventional procedures such as surgery, radiation or hormone therapy.  As a support during and following conventional procedures, these products might offer greater potential for success.  

SECTION 1:  DIETARY CONSIDERATIONS

A.  REDUCING an INFLAMMATORY DIETARY ARACHIDONIC CASCADE:

The link to the following article in the Life Extension magazine, Eating Your Way to Prostate Cancer,  describes the biochemical genetic changes and cellular damage that can accrue from poor dietary habits.  A diet that is high in omega-6 oils and saturated fats from meats, dairy products and egg yolks, low in omega-3 compounds from cold-water fish and fish oil, and low in plant foods like broccoli and cauliflower can contribute towards a preponderance of inflammatory compounds which can change gene expression and contribute to the development of cancer.   

Nutritional products such as omega-3 fish oils, curcumin, green tea, resveratrol, and extracts of boswellia can ameliorate and block some of the conversion to the most damaging of this arachidonic cascade, but the supplements may not be able to completely overcome the effects of a diet filled with high levels of arachidonic acid.  Dietary restriction of high arachidonic acid foods, such as meat, dairy products and egg yolks, is usually suggested along with the supplements that are anti-inflammatory for the cancer patient.
http://www.lef.org/magazine/.../feb2007_cover_prostate_01.htm

Many doctors helping cancer patients are suggesting that they begin a modified vegetarian diet with low levels of saturated fat.  Dr. Keith Block, MD, of the Block Center Program for Integrative Cancer Treatment, has recommended this type of diet for his cancer patients. In his excellent, highly referenced book, Life Over Cancer, he discusses how important reducing the intake of saturated fats is along with consuming healthy fats from OLIVE OIL and FISH OIL.   The consumption of flax oil, with its high content of alpha linolenic acid, is considered to be detrimental to prostate cancer patients, and most of the alternative doctors now strongly counsel against using it.  A discussion of whole flaxseeds, and their lignans, is discussed further down in this article.   
 
Specifically in regards to prostate cancer, research has found that men eating a high saturated fat diet were three times more likely to die from their prostate cancer than their cohorts on a low saturated fat diet.  A recent 2008 study of prostate cancer patients found that the men consuming a low fat diet were half as likely to have a recurrence of their prostate cancer.   

Dr. Steven Rosenzweig, MD,  Integrative Medicine physician, has made available online, the type of diet he uses with all kinds of ill patients, including cancer patients:
www.stevenrosenzweigmd.net/images/resources/basicdietforcancerpatientsaug262008.pdf

B.  LOW GLYCEMIC – LOW INSULIN  SPIKES FOR CANCER PATIENTS:

Cancer cells feed on glucose. Insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas when blood glucose levels  spike from consumption of high glycemic foods such as potatoes, rice, pasta, breads, sugars, fruit drinks and fruits, is a potent growth factor.   Maintaining a diet that keeps glucose levels, and therefore, insulin levels low, can be a major factor in reducing the growth rate of cancer cells.  

One mind-boggling study was done by Dean Ornish, using blood serum from two groups of prostate cancer patients, one on his diet and one with men not on his diet.  Prostate cancer cell lines in Petri dishes were given serum from both groups; the cells fed serum from the men not on the diet grew eight times faster.  The full Ornish study, Intensive Lifestyle Changes May Affect the Progression of Prostate Cancer, can be read at:
http://www.pmri.org/publications/Lifestyle_Changes_and_Prostate_Cancer.pdf
http://www.abundantwellbeing.com/Nischala/CancerStudyOrnish.pdf
 

Can Diet Really Control Prostate Cancer? http://www.prostate-cancer.org/pcricms/node/115

Carbohydrate Restriction May Slow Prostate Tumor Growth, May 26, 2009
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-05/dumc-crm052609.php

Glycemic control and prostate cancer progression:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov./pubmed/20687228
Rather than guess that one’s diet is not causing spiking of blood glucose levels, a blood glucose meter and strips can inexpensively be purchased.  Testing blood glucose levels one hour after, and two hours after several meals, can give one an idea of how effectively one’s diet is keeping blood sugar levels low.  Desirable fasting levels are between 85 and 95, and one hour post meals at 110 or lower.   A doctor can also order a fasting insulin level; a level under 10 is okay, but closer to 2 is more desirable.   An A1C test, which provides one with an average of one’s blood glucose level for the last three months, is also a useful test and one that one’s doctor should be willing to order.


C.  New Research: Specific Foods May Lengthen or Shorten Lives of PC Patients:
What If Much of What We Thought About Diet Is Wrong?

A recently released study with prostate cancer patients that was reported in July of 2010, threw a dietary wrench into the alternative approach to diet for prostate cancer patients.  This particular study was designed to lower the dietary intake of foods containing polyamines in a small group of hormone refractory prostate cancer patients.   Polyamines are a group of chemicals that are known to increase cell proliferation, an undesirable action for cancer patients.  Research has shown that polyamines are found in higher concentrations in cancer cells and in prostate cancer cells, so reducing their availability to these cancer cells offers another avenue of cancer control.  Besides dietary reduction of polyamines, this study also included two other avenues to reduce polyamines: 1) antibiotic reduction of gut microflora that make polyamines and 2) a drug that blocks synthesis of polyamines in cells. 

The idea of the potential benefit of reduction of polyamines had been previously tested on mouse cancer models and shown to be beneficial in them.

Although this study was small, the results were significant enough that one should not quickly dismiss this avenue of potential life enhancement.  Those participants who began the diet and study protocol before they reached nine months in a hormone refractory state, had a survival time of 44 months, versus the control group that survived 17 months.  This is a remarkable difference. 

The researchers divided the diet into three food groups:

GROUP 1:  The foods with the lowest polyamine content that could be eaten freely:

Vegetables:
onions, celery, carrots, green cabbage, beetroot, string beans, small tomatoes, peppers, skinned potatoes

Fruits:
raisins, apples, prunes, pears, avocado, peach, dates, pineapple, grapes, kiwi, lemon, strawberries, fruit salad

Fish, Pork, Turkey:
cod, crayfish, whiting, hake, smoke salmon, tinned tuna, bacon, sausages, chipolata, pork, turkey, chorizo, minced pork, salami

Dairy:
eggs, butter, cream, milk, yogurt, soft cheese, goat cheese, pasteurized brie, grated cheese, camembert

Flour Products:
rice, semolina, pasta, while bread, sugar, pancakes, chocolate éclair, honey, cookies, pound cake, chocolate, lemon pie, some jams

Liquids and Drinks:

coffee, tea, grape juice, apricot juice, beer, cider, cola, wine, whisky, cognac, port, tomato juice

                                                                                                              
This list includes some foods, that would "NOT" be considered to be healthy foods and would be excluded on most anti-cancer diets.  The fruit juices as well as the pasta, white bread, sugar and cookies, are all foods that would easily and quickly increase one’s blood glucose level and trigger an insulin surge, which is a detrimental process for controlling cancer growth, as cancer also feeds on sugar.
                                             
Anyone seriously interested in pursuing the details of this diet, can go to the link below for the study. 

GROUP 2: Before leaving this topic, it needs to be mentioned that some of the foods in group 2, which can only be consumed 3 to 4 times a week include:  fresh salmon, chicken, lamb, beef, ham, rabbit, veal, garlic sausage, paella, beef and ox tongue, radish, red beans, chicory, endives, leek, potatoes with skins, spring potatoes, Brussels sprouts, lettuce, cucumber, melon, goat cheese, ketchup, oat, rye and whole breads, and grapefruit and orange juices.

GROUP 3: Foods in group 3  can only be consumed 2 times every seven days, yet they include a few of the foods that are considered to be the most desirable for prostate cancer patients:  broccoli, cabbage, tomato paste, garlic, tomatoes, eggplant, almonds, pistachios, peanuts and hazelnuts.  Other foods in this list include:  sauerkraut, lentils, minced spinach, chickpeas, ratatouille, instant mashed potatoes, bananas, wheat, mustard, oranges, green peas, mushrooms, parsley, chervil, tarragon, duck and pork liver pate, liver mousse, chitterlings, crab, scallops, oysters, calamari and muscles.   

This food list was developed by French researchers.  Many of the foods on these three lists are not foods that would normally be consumed on the average American diet.                                                                                                              

A write up of the study by Tina Kaczor, ND, FABNO, has been published in the Natural Medicine Journal, and can be read at:  http://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/ac_july10_kaczor.shtml

 D.  DAIRY and CALCIUM CONSUMPTION:  Does It Fuel Prostate Cancer?

Calcium intake from food and supplements has been linked with increased risk of prostate cancer.   Prostate cancer shares much of the same chemistry as hormone driven breast cancer, and many of the nutritional benefits that help one will also help the other.

A particularly poignant story has been written by an earth and environmental British scientist, Jane A. Plant, Ph.D, in her highly referenced book, The No-Dairy Breast Cancer Prevention Program.  In it she recounts her recovery from her fifth breast cancer recurrence after she removed all dairy products from her diet.  

The following few paragraphs are from a five page article, Does Dairy Consumption Fuel Breast & Prostate Cancer?
 “The Physician’s Health Study followed the dietary habits of over 20,000 male doctors for more than 10 years.  The results of the study indicated that doctors who consumed 2 ½ or more daily servings of dairy foods increased their risk of prostate cancer by 30% over doctors who ate only half a serving or less.  Another alarming result was found from the 1999 Health Professionals Follow-Up Study of close to 50,000 men.  The risk of metastatic prostate cancer was increased 3 to 4-fold in men who consumed more than 2,000 milligrams of calcium per day from supplements.  Dairy products provide the most significant and common source of dietary calcium. “

Milk contains an incredible array of hormones and growth factors; one of the most significant is IGF-1.  The National Institutes of Health reported in 1995 that IGF-1 was involved in the progression of breast, pancreatic, prostate, small cell lung cancer, as well as melanoma and even some childhood cancers.  Some research studies have reported that “Men with IGF-1 levels only 8% above normal have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.  Men with the highest levels of IGF-1 who are over 60 years of age are at the highest risk, being 8 times more likely to develop prostate cancer than men with low levels.” 

Proponents of growth hormone injections, such as Dr. L. Cass Terry, PhD, from the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, declare that they have not seen an increase in cancers in those patients utilizing growth hormone injections, with its subsequent increase in IGF-1 levels.  A report of Dr. Terry’s study of the correlation between PSA levels and levels of IGF-1 in 749 patients:  Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 IGF-1, (Somatomedin C) Blood Levels Are Not Associated With Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Levels or Prostate Cancer:  A Study of 749 Patients, which can be read at:
www.thehormoneshop.org/prostate.htm

Tests for levels of IGF-1 are easily available.  ZRT Labs has a blood spot test for IGF-1 levels that is able to be self-ordered if one’s doctor will not order the test.    (www.bloodspottest.com or call 503-466-2445 to obtain the test)

Two other brief articles reviewing the research links between calcium intake from food or supplements and the development of prostate cancer, as well as more highly metastatic forms of prostate cancer are linked below:
http://advancedprostatecancer.net/?cat=24&paged=5
http://advancedprostatecancer.net/?cat=24&paged=7

SECTION 2:  VITAMINS for PC

A.  VITAMIN D3 MAY HELP PREVENT & TREAT PROSTATE CANCER:

Vitamin D3 regulates more than 1000 human genes.  Many physicians are now suggesting that vitamin D3 may be the most important supplement to prevent prostate cancer.  Vitamin D3 has been found to impact over 17 cancers as well as many other diseases.
The most extensive site for information about vitamin D3 can be found at:
www.thevitaminDcouncil.org

Although a blood level of vitamin D of 35 is considered adequate by most conventional physicians, alternative-minded physicians are suggesting levels of 60 to 70 or more for cancer and heart disease patients. 

Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer Prevention and Treatment
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14580762

Vitamin D May Help Treat Prostate Cancer
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/printerfriendlynews.php?newsid=16715

Vitamin D Inhibits Progression of Some Prostate Cancers
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/02/060208163311.htm

Prostate Cancer, Vitamin D, and Aleve. September 2, 2005, Denver Naturopathic Clinic, Dr. Jacob Schor, ND.   Subject:  Aleve triples effectiveness of Vitamin D against PC:
http://www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/DandAleve.html

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and PI3K/AKT inhibitors synergistically inhibit growth and induce senescence in prostate cancer cells.

B.  VITAMIN C + VITAMIN K3   in Prostate Cancer Study – Apatone + ProsStay:

Here are some links to read about the significant benefit that one might obtain from this vitamin combination:

The Cancer-fighting Vitamin Duo That Really Packs a Punch, Nutrition and Healing newsletter, April 2006, Dr. Jonathan V. Wright:  This article can be found on the first link below, or from the second link which lists several other articles by Dr. Jonathan V. Wright:
http://www.snwcenter.com/pdfs/Vit.CandK3WrightNew.pdf
http://pdfcatch.net/ebook/dr.+jonathan+V.+wright/

An article by Dr. Jacob Schor, Vitamin E Succinate Enhances Anti-Cancer Effect of Vitamin K3:
http://www.denvernaturopathic.com/autoschizisandEsuccinate.htm

Another link by Dr. Jacob Schor:     Autoschizis: the New Word in Cancer Treatment:
http://denvernaturopathic.com/autoschizis.html

First Clinical Trial of Apatone (Vit C + K3) For Cancer Treatment Completed by Researchers:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/printerfriendlynews.php
The vitamin C and K3 combination enters the cancer cells as easily as glucose does and it accumulates in the cancer cells to weaken them from within and cause a unique type of cell death that has been named autoschizis.   This study with 17 end-stage prostate cancer patients demonstrated positive results in 13 of the PC patients resulting in a decrease in PSA velocity and an increase in PSA doubling time.  A couple of the heavier men did not respond to the initial dosage used in this study.  The researchers then doubled their dose, and two of the men then experienced some positive response to the revised protocol of 10,000 vitamin C and 100 mg of K3.

This study used a dosage (5000 mg vitamin C and 50 mg of vitamin K3) that provided a fairly continual intake throughout the day and used 10 capsules in order to obtain that dosage:
2 capsules in the morning
1 capsule every hour for 6 dosages during the day
2 capsules in the evening

http://www.ic-medtech.com/apatone.php   Link to the company with Apatone.

Here is a link to an update on Apatone from a popular prostate cancer website:

http://prostatecancerinfolink.net/2010/06/12/a-quick-update-on-apoptone-in-hormone-refractory-prostate-ca

The following link takes the reader to the fulltext (pdf)  study with bladder cancer cells treated with the vitamin C and K3 combination showing pictures of the cellular response to the vitamin application:  Morphology and DNA Degeneration During Autoschizic Cell Death in Bladder Carcinoma T24 Cells Induced by Ascorbate and Menadione Treatment.
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112212061/pdfSTART

The OTC (over the counter) product called ProsStay™  provides 500 mg of Vitamin C and 5 mg of K3 per capsule can be obtained now from several sources, Life Enhancement and Life Extension are two sources.   

Vitamin K3 in Timed Release Form:
The most effective way to do this protocol might be to take the K3 in a timed release (TR) form so that one does not have to take so many pills throughout the day.   The Key Pharmacy, a compounding pharmacy in Kent, Washington, makes the K3 up in a TR (timed release) form.  The most common prescription is 25 mg taken twice a day, 12 hours apart.  This time release form is designed to be gradually released over a 12 hour period of time.  An inexpensive, timed-release vitamin C supplement can then be easily supplemented at the same time. (The Key Pharmacy phone number is 800-878-1322, and their fax number that doctors can fax a prescription to is 888-878-1118.)

C.  VITAMIN E – (Gamma E Tocopherol; Succinate form; Tocotrienol Fractions)

Although most people have been taking d-alpha tocopherol as a source of vitamin E, further research has shown that gamma E tocopherol is the form that is most protective against prostate cancer, and taking high amounts of the alpha component reduces the amount of the gamma form that is needed.    
 

Vitamin E has 8 fractions, 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols.  Although there are supplements that offer all 8 fractions, they are not superior because the tocopherols inhibit absorption of the tocotrienols, so if someone wants to take both of them, they should be taken at separate meals. 

Other research by Ohio State University’s Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown that another vitamin E compound, alpha tocopheryl succinate, blocks the Bcl-xL protein which is found in high amounts in cancer cells.  High amounts of the Bcl-xL protein keeps the cell from initiating the dying process known as apoptosis.  The unique succinate form of vitamin E helps to disable the Bcl-xL protein because it lodges in a groove in its structure.  A short article about this discovery, Researchers Make Vitamin E Offshoot A Potent Cancer Killer, can be read at:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid     

More information about the potential benefits of using Vitamin E succinate are written about in an article by Dr. Jacob Schor, ND, April 2010, Vitamin E Succinate Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Vitamin K-3, which can be read at:
http://www.denvernaturopathic.com/autoschizisandEsuccinate.htm

In this article Dr. Schor also posts some other significant research about Vitamin E succinate:
Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate Promotes Selective Cell Death Induced by Vitamin K3 in Combination with Ascorbate, Br J Cancer, 2010 Mar 23.
Cell Death by Autoschizis in TRAMP prostate Carcinoma Cells as a Result of Treatment by Ascorbate: Menadione Combination.  Ultrastruct Pathol.2005 May-Aug; 29 (3-4): 221-35.

Another research abstract of interest was posted on the Annie Appleseed Project;
Vitamin E Succinate Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells:  Role for Fas in Vitamin E Succinate-triggered Apoptosis, Nutrition and Cancer 36 (1): 90-100, 2000.
http://annieappleseedproject.stores.yahoo.net/vitesuc1.html

GAMMA-TOCOTRIENOL TARGETS PROSTATE CANCER STEM CELLS:

In July of 2010 a research article was published that gave more credence to the theory that prostate cancer stem cells, which are not eliminated by conventional therapies, may be the main cause of the relapse that often occurs.  Recent research has focused on the potent actions of gamma tocotrienol against prostate cancer stem cells.  There is an accumulation of research that has found that both gamma and delta tocotrienol demonstrate some significant anti-cancer activities.   In fact, presently there is a study using high doses of delta tocotrienol with pancreatic cancer.    The problem with doing research on gamma tocotrienol is that it is not available as a separate fraction that can be given in high dosages, whereas the delta tocotrienol fraction is available in high dosages and also has some potent anti-cancer abilities. 

Gamma-Tocotrienol Kills Prostate Cancer Stem Cells at:
http://prnewswire.com/news-releases/gamma-tocotrienol-kills-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-99205919.html

Gamma-tocotrienol as an effective agent in targeting prostate cancer stem cell-like population.  Int J Cancer. 2010 Jul 8    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617516

An excellent overview of tocotrienols can be read at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tocotrienol

American River Nutrition, the manufacturer of concentrated delta tocotrienol with gamma tocotrienol supplements has an overview of tocotrienol cancer research on their website:
http://americanrivernutrition.com/about/cancer-research

Here is a link to a site that offers high discounts on Delta (90%) with Gamma (10%) Tocotrienol softgels in both the 50 mg and the high potency 125 mg dose:
http://betterhealthinternational.com/productDetails.asp?prodID=NC56180

D.  COQ10:

Dr. Folkers, the ‘father of CoQ10’ therapy, had experienced several patients with malignancies that went into remission upon using up to 500 mg of CoQ10.  Dr. Folkers obtained funding to work with Dr. William Judy of Bradenton, Florida to treat prostate cancer patients with CoQ10.  Thirty hormone independent prostate cancer patients were given 500 mg of CoQ10 daily.  Fifteen of them had no metastases to bone or lung tissue and fourteen of them had their PSA values reduced to normal on the protocol.   Of the other fifteen patients who had metastases, eight of them also experienced a lowering of their PSA values to normal on the CoQ10 protocol.   Dr. Judy found it took about 3 months on this dosage of 500 mg a day to obtain a good response, if there was to be one.  Unfortunately this information from Dr. Judy is anecdotal since the study was never published. 
http://www.newswithviews.com/Howenstine/james2.htm

In 2003, researchers reported that when cancer cells and tissues were treated with CoQ10, normal programmed cell death, called apoptosis, occurs.  It was the addition of a phospholipid base that enabled the CoQ10 to easily enter the cells.  An article, A Gentle Cancer Killer, about this discovery can be read at:
http://www.6.miami.edu/ummedicine-magazine/.../fstory4.html

The same researchers continued their work with CoQ10 and discovered how it fights cancer in the body.   Researchers have already known that a protein called Bcl-2 is over-expressed in many cancers.  When it is over-expressed, it keeps normal cell death from occurring in those cancer cells.  It also makes the cancer cells more resistant to radiation and chemotherapy drugs.  When the cancer cells are treated with CoQ10, the actions of Bcl-2 are subdued and the process of normal cell death, apoptosis, can occur. 
http://www.med.miami.edu/news/view.asp?id=519

SECTION 3:  HERBAL & FOOD EXTRACTS

A.  7 PHYTOESTROGENS REGULATE PC CANCER CELL GROWTH IN TEST TUBE:

This study, although only conducted in cell cultures, provides encouragement to the potential biochemical response that various herbs could provide if they could attain appropriate serum levels.   The induction of apoptosis, programmed cell death, was induced by all 7 of the phytoestrogen compounds in the 2 cell lines. Nutr.Cancer. 2004;49(2):200-8)

 Herbs that displaced more than 85% of estradiol binding:
Genistein
EGCG (green tea extract)
Curcumin
Baicalein
Quercetin

Herbs that displaced only 40% of estridiol binding:
Apigenin
Resveratrol

Herbs that inhibited growth in LNCaP (androgen sensitive) human prostate cancer cells:
Curcumin and Apigenin were the most potent growth inhibitors, while EGCG and baicalein were the least potent.

Herbs that inhibited growth in PC-3 (androgen insensitive) human prostate cancer cells:
Curcumin was the most potent inhibitor, while EGCG was the least potent.

B.  POMEGRANATE PUNICALIGINS:
           
 Here is a link to an in-depth article that discusses the history of pomegranate juice and extracts with prostate cancer patients:  Pomegranates and Prostate health:  A Research Report, by Mark Dreher,  Ph.D.: 
http://www.prostate-cancer.org/pcricms/node/112

 Pomegranate Juice Helps Fight Prostate Cancer, Study Says: 
 http://www.newstarget.com/008513.html

Pomegranate juice and extracts, which includes anthocyanins, ellagitannins such as punicalagins and punicalins as well as a wide range of  polyphenolic compounds, have been proposed to offer a wide range of health benefits, from reduction of heart disease and artery plaque, lowering of blood pressure and even help with slowing down the growth of prostate and other cancers. 

A very dramatic slowing of prostate cancer cells was demonstrated by a clinical study with men that drank 8 ounces a day of pomegranate juice from Pom Wonderful for one year.  Several articles written by Dr. Jacob Schor, ND, discuss the significant results of this study as well as others:
www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/PomandPC.html
www.denvernaturopathic.com/pomegranateSeptember08.html
www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/pomupdate.html
www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/jerusalem.html

An Israeli pomegranate researcher, Dr. Ephraim Lansky, has found significant benefits from fermenting the juice, seeds, pulp, and oil.  In Israel, he is pursuing this fermented pomegranate product for both prostate and breast cancer.   In the U.S., the supplement company Jarrow offers a pomegranate product, PomGuard, which is a blend of pomegranate juice actives and pomegranate seed powder.  Jarrow’s products can be purchased at discount prices from many sites on the internet. 

A thorough review of the research on pomegranate, Therapeutic Applications of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): A Review, written by Julie Jurenka, published in the 2008 Alternative Medicine Review, Volume 13, Number 2, can be read from the following link:
www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/13/2/128.pdf 

              
C.  LYCOPENE:

Population studies have suggested that men that consume tomato-based foods at least four to five times a week might be 25% less likely to develop prostate cancer.  Based on this suggestive epidemiological evidence, several studies with lycopene, the prominent carotenoid in tomatoes, were initiated.

The most often quoted study that shows benefit to men with prostate cancer was the one reported by Kucek et al, where 30 men with localized PC who were scheduled for a radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to be given 15 mg of lycopene (Lyc-o-Mato) orally twice a day for three weeks before surgery.  The benefits to the intervention group versus the control group were very significant.  The PC patients taking the lycopene experienced decreases in PSA, decreases in their proliferation markers, while cell death from apoptosis increased as did differentiation of the cellular chemistry towards more normal cells.  Both serum and tissue lycopene levels were increased in the intervention group.  

PubMed abstract: 15464923
Lycopene:  a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol.2004 Sep-Oct; 22(5):415-20.
In this study, only 10 mg of lycopene per day were administered to a group of PC patients whose disease had progressed following hormonal therapy.  Their conclusions were that lycopene therapy appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of HRPC.  It helps lower the rising PSA, improves the bone pain in some of the PC patients.  The duration of response was 12 to 72 weeks, with the median duration being 25 weeks.

PubMed abstract:  15734720
Physiologically attainable concentrations of lycopene induce mitochondrial apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.  Ep Biol Med (Maywood). 2005, Mar:230(3):171-9
This cell study demonstrated “that mitochondrial function decreased 61% to 83% with increasing concentrations of lycopene”, which induced apoptosis. 

An NCI study with rats given prostate cancer found that results from using whole tomato powder which included the seeds and skins gave a significant 26% decrease in risk of dying from prostate cancer, while the rats that received the lycopene alone did not benefit. 

Researchers at Ohio State conducted some studies with tomato sauce and discovered that when lycopene in tomato sauce is subjected to extensive cooking with some oil, that the lycopene molecules become ‘bent’.  In this bent or cis-lycopene form it is absorbed into the blood stream more easily.  The sauce that was heated again at 260 degrees for forty minutes contained nine times more of the advantageous cis-lycopene form than the sauce that was not cooked twice.  Study participants also had 55% higher blood levels of lycopene after eating the doubly cooked sauce.   This research does give credence to the value of a large pot of homemade Italian tomato sauce cooking on the stove all day.  The article, Bend Those Lycopene Molecules and Enjoy Your Tomato Sauce, can be read at: 
http://advancedprostatecancer.net/?cat=24&paged=5

Dr. Charles Myers, in his excellent book, Beating Prostate Cancer: Hormonal Therapy & Diet, suggests 10 mg 3 times a day.  In his discussion of lycopene, he mentions the research work of  Diwadkar-Navsariwala.  This researcher tested the absorption of lycopene after various oral dosages that ranged from 10 to 120 mg.  The results from this study found that 80% of the participants only absorbed 6 mg of lycopene of any single dose. 

Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with lycopene in the TRAMP model: Prostate 2010, May 26.
This 2010 study used tomato paste (TP) versus lycopene beadlet (LB) with mice.  Part of their research conclusions stated, “suggest significant chemopreventive activity with a lycopene beadlet-enriched diet”.  Both dietary strategies resulted in significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage in the livers of the mice, relative to the control group.

Putting all this research into practical application, it might be advantageous to eat some cooked tomato sauce along with the Lyc-O-Mato lycopene product in order to derive the most benefit.

D.  SOY ISOFLAVONES:

Many studies of soy isoflavones in cell cultures have suggested that they exert anticarcinogenic effects against prostate cancer.   Life Extension offers a discussion of the potential benefits and contraindications of soy isoflavones starting on page 7 in the section on Adjuvant Cancer  Therapy:   www.lef.org/protocols/prtcl-027f.shtml    

One of the unique soy isoflavone products that has undergone some testing in prostate cancer patients is a product called GCP (Genistein Combined Polysaccharide).    In this product, the non-GMO soybeans are fermented with basidiomycetes mushrooms, and when fermented, these mushrooms produce glucosidase enzymes, which convert isoflavone glycosides into genistein aglycones, which increases their intestinal absorption.   

Dr. Aaron Katz, of Columbia Medical Center (Center for Holistic Urology) has performed several studies on GCP, including test tube testing as well as in animal models and in his prostate cancer patients.  He did report that he found the GCP product to be superior to regular soy isoflavones for cancer cell apoptosis, programmed cell death.   The study he conducted was of a short duration, only lasting 44 days, with the men consuming a daily two gram dose. 

A concentrated aglycone isoflavone preparation (GCP) that demonstrates potent anti-prostate cancer activity in vitro and in vivo.  Clin Cancer Res 2004 Aug 1;10(15):5282-92.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15297432  (can link to full free article from there)

A group of men from the Man to Man prostate cancer support group did their own informal study of GCP which varied in time and dosage.  The doses taken were between 2 and 9 grams and the time period lasted over a year for some men in the group.  When the men’s PSA was under 10, the GCP did help to lower it.  Also, it was noted that taking another product from the same company, AHCC, which is also discussed in this article, helped to achieve better results. 

The GCP product is very expensive at the higher dosages that were used by some of the men, and so many men are discouraged from even trying it.  Here is a link to a discussion of GCP which provides links to the GCP Research Website, GCP Brochure, GCP Research Summaries and GCP Prostate Research:
http://www.rockwellnutrition.com

A more recent study that used 100 mg of isoflavones twice a day with prostate cancer patients…

Differential effects of whole soy extract and soy isoflavones on apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood): 2010 Jan;235(1):90-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20404023

Combined inhibitory effects of soy isoflavones and curcumin on the production of prostate-specific antigen.  Prostate. 2010 Jul 1;70(10):1127-33
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20503397

Isoflavone supplements stimulated the production of serum equol and decreased the serum dihydrotestosterone levels in healthy male volunteers.  Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12(3):247-52. Epub 2009 Jul 14
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19597532

Phase II trial of isoflavone in prostate-specific antigen recurrent prostate cancer after previous local therapy.  BMC Cancer 2008 May 11;8:132
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18471323
This study demonstrated a decline in the slope of PSA with dietary isoflavone supplementation of an 8 oz serving of soy milk three times a day for 12 months.  Previous to the study, the PSA had increased 56% the year before, but only increased 20% during the year of the study. 

A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen.  Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):145-54
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18444145
Both serum PSA and vascular endothelial growth factor was reduced during the study. 

A  12-week 2009 study using 20 grams of soy containing 160 mg of total isoflavones, that was conducted with men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy, did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two groups in this randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study.   http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758646

E.  GREEN TEA EXTRACT (EGCG only):

One small clinical study demonstrated the potential of green tea to prevent the development of PC.  A group of 62 men at high risk for developing PC, were divided into a placebo control group of 30 men and a group of 32 men receiving green tea extract.  After one year, nine men from the placebo control group had developed prostate cancer, but only one man out of the 32 in the green tea extract group had developed prostate cancer. 

A study of prostate cancer patients that were scheduled for surgery in the next month that were given 1.3 grams of the green tea polyphenols up until the day before their surgery.  The researchers did before and follow-up tests of their PSA, as well as a protein, VEGF, that stimulates the growth of new blood vessels in the tumor.  The results were significant.  In only a little over 30 days on the green tea polyphenol, some of the men had a 30% drop in these cancer markers.  

The highest quality green tea extract that is very high in the EGCG component is from Teavigo; it is grown without pesticides and is processed properly without toxic chemicals.  Green tea polyphenols help:

1)Modulate the insulin-like grown factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a risk factor for prostate cancer, as well as other cancers, and high levels are thought to promote cancer growth. 
2)Inhibit the levels of urokinase plasminogen activator, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, molecules that favor metastasis.
3)Reduce the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum, the factor that develops new blood vessels to the tumor.
4)Reduce the survival proteins in cancer cells, helping to re-establish apoptosis (cell death).
http://www.green-tea-health-news.com/EGCG-research.html

 
F.   DIM – Diindolylmethane:

A diet that is high in cruciferous vegetables has been linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer.  DIM is a stable indole that is found in cruciferous vegetables.  Without changes in its formulation, DIM is poorly absorbed by the human body.  Dr. Michael A. Zeligs, MD, was awarded a U.S. patent for absorption-enhanced microencapsulated Diindolymethane. 

This product, BioResponse DIM, has been subjected to many clinical studies, both test tube and with humans.  Information about DIM and Prostate Health can be viewed at:

http://www.dimfaq.com/site/prostatehealth.htm

A 2006 study published in Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15:66(20):10064-72, Down-regulation of androgen receptor by 3,3’-diindolylmethane contributes to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in both hormone-sensitive LNCaP and insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells.  Their results suggest “that B-DIM induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction are partly mediated through the down-regulation of AR, Akt, and NF-kappaB signaling”.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17047070

Presently, there is a significant NCI Phase II treatment study with men with prostate cancer:

Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Oral Microencapsulated Diindolylmethane in Patients with Stage I or II Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

There are several objectives of this trial:  The primary objective is to measure the level of DIM in prostate tissue from oral use before surgery.  The secondary objective is to measure many of the serum (PSA, testosterone, DIM) and tissue biomarkers (androgen receptor, NF-kB, PSA) pre- and post-treatment with DIM.   The estimated end date of this study is September 2010.   (Masumeh Alipour, study coordinator 800-527-6266)

Presently, there are also 2 clinical studies testing DIM  with women: one is a Phase III treatment study with women with cervical dysplasia; and the other one is a phase III prevention study with women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities.

G. PectaSol-C   Newest version of Modified Citrus Pectin:

Studies have demonstrated that modified citrus pectin might prevent prostate cancer cells, which contain proteins called galectins on their surface, from binding to each other and adhering to the inner wall of blood vessels.  This reduces the potential for tumor growth formation in other parts of the body.  In prostate cancer patients, this might reduce the metastasis of prostate cancer cells to the lungs.     

New research indicates that the PectaSol-C product, an updated new version of modified citrus pection, developed by Dr. Isaac Eliaz, has a very low molecular weight, with much smaller  particles than his first PectaSol product.  These smaller particles offer the advantage of increased absorption over the original formula. 

The link below takes the reader to a study reported in 2003 with prostate cancer patients using the original PectaSol product to determine if it would increase the PSA doubling time.  Seven of the ten subjects in this study did have a statistically significant increase in the doubling time after taking the modified citrus pectin for twelve months:  Modified citrus pectin (MCP) increase the prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with prostate cancer: a phase II pilot study:
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14663471

 
One European study of PectaSol-C with various types of advanced cancer patients demonstrated that an eight week treatment resulted in stable disease in 22% of the patients, with several of them maintaining disease stabilization for six months.  One participant, a prostate cancer patient with metastasized disease, experienced a 50% reduction in his PSA after 4 months. 

Recent research with the newer PectaSol-C, has demonstrated that it inhibits cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis, programmed cell death, in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines.  It demonstrated these anti-cancer properties in both hormonal sensitive and hormonal resistant prostate cancer cells. 
http://advancedprostatecancer.net/?p=1582#more-1582

H.  CURCUMIN:
Several studies indicate that curcumin can both prevent and treat cancer.  In cell studies, curcumin has demonstrated the ability to suppress proliferation of many kinds of cancer cells.  In particular, curcumin can down-regulate a primary transciption factor, NF-kappa B.   It also down-regulates the inflammatory COX2 and LOX enzymes, and inhibits a host of other growth factor receptors.  It can do all three goals of an anti-cancer therapy:  suppress tumor initiation, promotion and metastasis.  It can do all these actions if it can be absorbed and be available in the blood stream.  In human studies, in order to obtain any benefit, patients have had to take very high levels of curcumin, from 8 to 10 grams a day.  It does not seem to have any toxicity at those levels, and does offer some potential for treatment.

Curcumin has demonstrated many anticancer actions both in test tube studies and in animal studies. 
*inducing apoptosis (cancer cell death)
*inhibiting the growth factors and signal transduction that fuel cancer growth
*inhibiting NF-kB activity, a most inflammatory compound involved in many cancers
*supporting p53 gene function
*inhibiting cancer cell invasion, metastasis 

Some links for articles about curcumin:
www.thorne.com/media/alternative_medicine_review/monographs/curcumaMono.pdf

http://www.psa-rising.com/eatingwell/tumeric.htm

A recent human study with aggressive pancreatic cancer patients showed longer remission times in those on curcumin.  

As already stated, the problem with curcumin has been its absorption.  Several different formulations have been developed in order to increase the curcuminoid compounds.   A recent product development is called Meriva, which binds the curcumin to phosphatidylcholine, a fatty acid; this combination has shown sustained levels of absorption:
http://www.phytosomes.info/public/meriva.asp
   

Dr. Jacob Schor, ND, of the Denver Naturopathic Clinic, has written an article about the potential benefits or problems with using curcumin while someone is on chemotherapy:
www.denvernaturopathic.com/news/curcuminandchemo.html

Meriva curcumin product, in a timed release form (as of 2009) is available from Thorne Research products, a supplement company that sells to professionals.   Several sites sell the Thorne product on the internet.  Amazon offers it at a significantly reduced price.

A company that sells directly to consumers that carries the Meriva product is Swanson Health Foods (1-800-437-4148, Meriva®Turmeric Phytosome™SWU493, 60 capsules, $9.99). 

I.  5-LOXIN HERBAL SUPPLEMENT  INHIBITS  LIPOXYGENASE PATHWAY:

The 5-lipoxygenase enzyme pathway is over-expressed in prostate cancer tissues.  One biopsy sample from human PC patients found a six-fold greater level in malignant tissues versus healthy prostate tissues.  The 5-lipoxygenase enzyme promotes many of the tumor growth factors that fuel the cancer.  An herbal product was developed and concentrated from the ancient herb boswellia, and named 5-Loxin because it specifically inhibits the inflammatory lipoxygenase pathway.  Small amounts of 5-Loxin are found in several joint supplement products, although capsules containing higher dosages of 75 mg or 100 mg are presently  available from two known sources, Life Extension and Vitacost.  Here is a link to an article about the growth factors that 5-Loxin inhibits:
http://www.lef.org/magazine/may2007/feb2007-cover-prostate-01.htm

A study done at the University of Virginia Cancer Center, by Charles E. Myers, MD, and Jagadananda Ghosh, demonstrated that prostate cancer cells “eat” a downstream metabolite of 5-lipoxygenase, called 5-HETE.  If 5-HETE production is inhibited, there is no prostate cancer proliferation.  They have repeatedly demonstrated that massive and rapid prostate cancer cell death occurs within 1 to 2 hours after the production of 5-HETE has been stopped.  5-HETE is also highly metabolized in pancreatic cancer.   Their published study is linked below:
http://www.pnas.org/content/95/22/13182.short
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/66/21/10238

J.  CHINESE SKULLCAP – BAICALEIN (inhibits 12-Lipoxygenase in PC cancer cells)

Chinese skullcap is used in many herbal cancer formulas in Asia.  The active agents of this herb have been subjected to study to determine their specific anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines.  The active compounds in Chinese skullcap also have antiviral, antibacterial, anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effects.  An excellent review of Chinese skullcap and its potential for use as part of an alternative prostate cancer protocol was written in a report by James Meschino: A Viable Adjunct to Cancer Treatment which can be read at:
http://www.chineseherbs.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-19  (to print this article, one may need to highlight it and paste it on a document)

A research study discussing the role of the 12-lipoxygenase inflammatory pathway in breast or prostate cancer, reports on the herbal extract baicalein in its role as a selective inhibitor of this pathway.  When 12-lipoxygenase is over-expressed in prostate or breast cancer cells, there is up to a 3- to 10-fold increase in the VEGF promoter activity which facilitates growth of the vascular blood supply to the growing tumor: 
http://jbc.org/content/281/27/18601.full

The company “New Chapter” offers a baicalein product called Baikal Skullcap, which can be obtained at health food stores and through internet distributors such as VitaCost. 

K.   LIGNANS from FLAXSEEDS:

The fiber-like components of flaxseeds are called lignans.  Lignans block an enzyme that converts testosterone into DHT, dihydrotestosterone, the form that helps to fuel cancer growth.  One study with 25 prostate cancer patients who were put on a low-fat diet plus flaxseed did demonstrate lower testosterone levels.  A test tube study with the lignans from flaxseeds demonstrated that the human prostate cancer cells were inhibited from growing by the flax lignans. 

Flaxseed Supplementation (Not Dietary Fat Restriction) Reduces Prostate Cancer Proliferation Rates in Men Presurgery:     http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/17/12/3577.long
  
Many nutritional practitioners will suggest that men with prostate cancer take 1 to 3 tablespoons of ground flaxseeds a day, with a protein drink, sprinkled on food, or cooked in a muffin. 

L.  SULFORAPHANE:   (from cruciferous vegetables)

Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates, which are phytochemicals that break down into compounds called indoles and isothiocyantes, of which sulforaphane is a primary compound.

Molecular basis for chemoprevention by sulforaphane: a comprehensive review.
“The major mechanism by which sulforaphane protects cells was traditionally thought to be through Nrf2-mediated induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes that elevate cell defense against oxidative damage and promote the removal of carcinogens.  However, it is becoming clear that there are multiple mechanisms activated in response to sulforaphane, including suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, induction of apoptotic pathways, suppression of cell cycle progression, inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17396224
Cell Mol Life Sci 2007 May:64(9):1105-27

Dietary sulforaphane, a histone deacetylase inhibitor for cancer prevention
….“we previously demonstrated that sulforaphane acted as an HDAC inhibitor in the prostate, causing enhanced histone acetylation, derepression of P21 and Bax, and induction of cell cycle arrest/apotosis, leading to cancer prevention.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19812222
J Nutr. 2009 Dec: 139(12) 2393-6 Epub 2009 Oct 7

Temporal changes in gene expression induced by sulforaphane in human prostate cancer cells.
“Our data suggest that in prostate cells sulforaphane primarily induces cellular defenses and inhibits cell growth by causing G2/M phase arrest.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18973173
Prostate 2009 Feb 1:69(2):181-90

M.  GRAPESEED AND MUSCADINE GRAPE SKIN:
Both of these products have shown some significant results in various prostate cancer cell lines in research studies.   A search in PubMed titled, grape seed extract prostate cancer, resulted in 16 studies, all of them in cell lines or mice.  These cell or mice studies demonstrated some desirable biochemical activity, such as anti-proliferation, anti-tumorigenic, pro-apoptotic, and morphological changes. 

Here is a link to a recent study:
NFkappaB-dependent regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator by proanthycyanidin-rich grape seed extract: effect prostate cancer cells. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysi. 2010 May 24, Pubmed: 20502321

Grapeseed extracts are easily obtained from various supplement distributors and are often quite inexpensive.

The National Institutes of Health issued this news release in 2007, titled, Unique Grape Skin Extract Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Growth in the Laboratory, which reported that the skin of muscadine grapes significantly inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells (but not normal prostate cells) by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death.   This news release can be read at:  http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/aug2007/nci-31.htm

Known retail offerings are called GrapeSkinPowder (Ison’s Nursery 800-733-0324) or Purple Power.

Dr. Charles Myers, author of Beating Prostate Cancer: Hormonal Therapy & Diet, suggests that men with prostate cancer can consume red wine or grape juice.    He does not recommend grape seed products, although in his book he does not say why.

SECTION 4:  IMMUNE  ENHANCEMENT

A.  ACTIVATING NATURAL KILLER CELLS with AHCC:

AHCC has been researched in many clinical studies in prestigious institutions in Japan (Kyorin University, Teikyo University, Hokkaido University), as well as Yale University and Morehouse School of Medicine in the U.S. 

AHCC is made from specially processed mushrooms that have been shown to improve the function of NK, natural killer cells.  
 
A NK test (Natural Killer cell), although expensive, can determine whether one’s immune-enhancing supplements are actually working. 

A naturopathic doctor, Dr. James Belanger, ND, of the Lexington Natural Health Center, in Massachusetts (781-274-6190) also wondered if the supplements some of his patients asked him about would really help increase their NK cell activity.    Dr. Belanger conducted a small study with his own patients, and reported on his results in an article published in the 2005 February-March Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients entitled:

An in-house evaluation of four dietary supplements on natural killer cell activity
(Putting that title into the Google search box will give you a few links where you can read the full article with the patients NK levels before and after supplementation.)

Dr. Belanger’s small study found that the product that most consistently raised their NK activity was AHCC, Active Hexose Correlated Compound.  This product is made from a hybrid of mushrooms used in traditional Japanese medicine.  It has been tested with cancer patients in many hospitals there and is used with thousands of cancer patients. It has been demonstrated to significantly increase the NK cell cancer killing function.  AHCC can be purchased from several sources, including the direct consumer catalog, Swanson Health Foods. 
www.ahccresearch.com

B. UNDENATURED WHEY PROTEIN:

Undenatured whey protein entered the nutritional spotlight when Immunotec did research with their whey protein product, Immunocal®/HMS 90 ®, with Aids patients and proved that it enhanced the immune system through raising levels of glutathione, an intracellular antioxidant that is vital to a strong immune system.

Thousands of patients have used this product to raise their glutathione levels.  Many studies have proven the glutathione increase from their undenatured whey protein.  A study in 2002, specifically with human prostate cells, RWPE-1 (not cancer cells), demonstrated a 64% increase in intracellular glutathione compared with cells not receiving the whey.  It is interesting to note that a similar increase in glutathione was observed with the much less expensive supplement N-acetylcysteine.  The end result of this glutathione increase was protection “against oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate cells”.  In other words, the increased anti-oxidant glutathione protected the healthy prostate cells from death due to levels of metabolic oxidants that occur in all cells.  Read the Science Daily article: Eat Your Whey: It May Protect Against Prostate Cancer, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/05/030529081202.htm

This raises the question as to whether undenatured whey protein would end up protecting prostate cancer cells from death from protocols that aim to increase oxidants in the cell leading to apoptosis.  This question is not completely answered yet.  Anecdotal reports from prostate cancer patients using Immunocal who tell their story on the Immunocal website, report positive results.

Many alternative physicians suggest daily low sugar whey protein drinks for their cancer patients.  It is often recommended for breast cancer patients, since some early studies with mice suggested that the whey increased the glutathione in normal, healthy cells, but depleted it in the breast cancer cells. 

A recent 2008 double-blind, 6-month study:  Cysteine-Rich Protein Reverses Weight Loss in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy, indicated a small 2.5% increase in body weight in those on the whey protein, while the patients not taking it lost 2.6% of their body weight.   Since wasting and losing muscle mass is one of the secondary problems of many cancer patients, whey protein may serve a beneficial role as a supplement, as well as a tasty food source that does not contain inflammatory arachidonic acid as does meat, cheese and butter sources.    

SECTION 5:  INCREASING BONE INTEGRITY TO   PREVENT METASTASES

A.  PROSTATE CANCER DOCTORS’ STRATEGIES:

More than 90% of metastasis from prostate cancer is to the bones, so maintaining the integrity of the skeleton becomes an important component of prostate cancer care. 

The following study discusses the problem that micrometastases of prostate cancer cells may occur very early in the disease process, and 30% of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and a negative bone scan will still experience relapse even though their primary tumor was apparently treated early. 

 Identification of Bone Marrow Micrometastases  in Patients with Prostate Cancer. Cancer 1994 Nov 1; 74(9):2533040.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/752292

Bone Integrity Affects The Natural History of Prostate Cancer, by Stephen Strum, MD.
http://www.prostate-cancer.org/pcricms/node/236

Bone-Targeted Therapy for Advanced Prostate Cancer, Oliver Sartor, MD
http://www.prostate-cancer.org/pcricms/node/369

New Molecular Pathway for Bone Mets in Prostate Cancer
Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center have demonstrated that the “bone protein osteonectin or SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) selectively supports the invasion of highly metastatic prostate cancer cell lines to bone.”

Surprise Drug Treatment for Bone Cancer Works!
Article published in Dr. Robert Jay Rowan’s Second Opinion newsletter, December 2009.
Inexpensive antibiotic tetracycline can slow the development of bone metastases by up to 70%.
Here is a link to his article:
http://queencortisol.com/robert-rowen-md-alternative-health-articles/surprise-drug-treatment-for-bone-cancer

B.  SUPPLEMENTS THAT HELP FORM STRONG BONES:

1. VITAMIN D3      (written about in Section 2)

2. STRONTIUM:
An article by Dr. Ward Dean, MD, in the Vitamin Research Products newsletter, discussed the work of Dr. Skoryna who used strontium compounds with osteoporosis patients as well as breast and prostate cancer patients whose cancer had spread to their bones.  Some of the cancer patients reported decreases in pain and remineralization of areas of their skeleton that were eroded by the cancer. 
 http://www.vrp.com/bone-and-joint/strontium-breakthrough-in-bone-health

3. MK-7:
MK-7 is one of the fractions of Vitamin K2.  Vitamin K2 helps to maintain healthy bone and helps to keep calcium in the bone and out of the arteries.  Here is a link to an article about the benefits of vitamin K  supplementation from the Life Extension magazine:
Protection Against Arterial Calcification, Bone Loss, Cancer and Aging
http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2009/jan2009_Vitamin-K-Protection-Against-Arterial-Calcification-Bone-Loss-Cancer-Aging_01.htm

4. CALCIUM OROTATE:
Dr. Hans Nieper found that ten out of thirteen cancer patients with bone metastases were able to obtain recalcification using calcium orotate.
www.oasisadvancedwellness.com/learning/orotates-mineral-transporters.html

 5. MAGNESIUM:
Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in modern societies that eat a lot of processed foods.  The daily suggested requirement for magnesium, 300 mg for women and 400 mg for men, is difficult to meet without supplementation.  Magnesium is required for over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body, and is an essential component of bones.   Although many calcium supplements also contain magnesium, they both compete for the same absorption pathways, so it is better if they are consumed separately.   Calcium absorption is best in an acidic environment, so it is often suggested that people take their calcium supplements with their meals, when hydrochloric acid is released into the stomach.    Magnesium is often taken in the evening or before bed, as it contributes to relaxation and better sleep for many people. 
The most comprehensive site discussing all aspects of magnesium research, has been developed by Mildred S. Seelig, MD, MPH, The Magnesium Web Site: www.mgwater.com.

Articles on that site that are related to cancer in general, not specifically prostate cancer, can be found at:
http://www.mgwater.com/cancer.shtml

 
SECTION 6: HORMONE THERAPY CONSIDERATIONS

A. MELATONIN:

Melatonin, the hormone produced by the pineal gland, has been shown to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells.  Here is a link to a study that is specifically about how melatonin  affects the androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells:  Melatonin Reduces Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Leading to Neuroendocrine Differentiation Via A Receptor and PKA Independent Mechanism. Prostate.2005 Apr 1;63(1):29-43.   www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15378522

Here is a link to a brief discussion about how one study showed that when melatonin was combined with Leupron, which is used for the hormone blockade, it helped to prevent the eventual reaction in which the prostate cancer metastasizes and spreads in the body:
http://www.drmirkin.com/archive/7210.html

Here is a link to a referenced article, The Therapeutic Potential of Melatonin: A Review of the Science, which discusses the many clinical uses of melatonin:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc1395802/

B.  LINKS TO ARTICLES & ONLINE SLIDE PRESENTATIONS FROM DR. CHARLES MYERS AND DR. LEIBOWIETZ:

Hormone therapy is often misunderstood by PC patients, and often ignored as a potential therapy until it is too late to benefit from its process.   The following links are provided for information from the doctors that have found hormone therapy to significantly extend survival, especially along with an anti-inflammatory diet and appropriate supplements. 

Here are two links that offer a positive discussion of hormone therapy.  The first one is by Dr. Charles “Snuffy” Myers, who was himself diagnosed with a very aggressive case of prostate cancer at the age of 55.
Beating Prostate Cancer with Hormonal Therapy, Prostate Cancer Research Institute, 2007
http://www.prostate-cancer.org/education/andeprv/Myers_HormonalTherapyDiet.html

Here is a link to notes taken from a presentation by Dr. Charles Myers, “Second Line Hormonal Therapy” that is posted on the Annie Appleseed project website of cancer information:
http://www.annieappleseedproject.org/slihothdrchm.html
 
The following link takes the reader to 4 slide presentations about various aspects of prostate cancer.  The reader might have to print the presentation on pdf in order to see the slides:
http://www.ProstateCancerTopics.com
The presentations can be viewed either as a pdf or as HTML:
Topic 000:  Durable Remission for Newly Recurrent Prostate Cancer (PC)
Topic 001:  Ultra Sensitve PSA-Necessity
Topic 002:  Hormone Testing Necessity
Topic 003:  Survival Table

Dr. Leibowietz, MD, of the Compassionate Medical Oncology Group, is the originator of the triple hormone blockade.  He also utilizes testosterone therapy after his PC patients achieve stabilization.  He offers a study update in 2009 of a group of his PC patients who were on testosterone therapy and experienced a long term remission.
http://compassionateoncology.org/approach.html
http://compassionateoncology.org/pdfs/HDTestUpdate.pdf

ProstaScint Scan
Here is a link to an article by Dr. Samuel Kipper, MD, Update on ProstaScint: CT and MRI Fusion as Diagnostic Tools.  It is published in the Prostate Cancer Research Institute (PCRI) Newsletter:
www.prostate-cancer.org/pcricms/node/171

Here is a link to a discussion about the use of Casodex, which discusses the intracellular and membrane receptors for testosterone:
http://www.medkb.com/Uwe/Forum.aspx/cancer-prostate/4482/casodex-what-difference

Popular Prostate Cancer Treatment May Encourage Spread of Cancer, Study Suggests
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, identified the gene, nestin,
that becomes overactive with androgen deprivation therapy, and contributes to the potential of prostate cancer cells to migrate to other parts of the body, usually the bones.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071001081614.htm

C. PROGESTERONE:  

Dr. Lee suggested a small amount of progesterone cream applied to the perineum area once a day for men with early prostate cancer.  In reviewing the hormone changes as men age, Dr. Lee found three that are pertinent to progesterone use:  
1) progesterone levels fall;
2) estradiol levels rise, and
3) testosterone changes to the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) form. 
He thought that the environmental rise in estrogen metabolites might be the causal factor.  One suggestion was for men to order a self-initiated saliva test from ZRT to check out one’s levels of progesterone, testosterone and estrone.  (www.zrtlabs.com)

IMPORTANT PROGESTERONE NOTE:
Dr. Leibowitz, who uses triple hormone blockade with PC patients, has found that men on that therapy and the following high dose testosterone therapy that he uses, experience a rising of their PSA if they use progesterone.
    

SECTION 7:  MISCELLANEOUS STRATEGIES CONSIDERATIONS

A.  LOW DOSE NALTREXONE THERAPY:

In conversations with the now late Dr. Bernard Bihari, MD, the originator of the LDN, Low Dose Naltrexone therapy, he reported that he had had success with keeping prostate cancer in remission only in two PC patients that had not had hormone therapy or radiation.   Once they had utilized those therapies, there did not seem to be any response to the LDN protocol.  He thought this was due to the change in the cancer cell membrane after the hormone therapy or radiation.  LDN therapy is a very simple, non-toxic therapy to add to an anti-cancer protocol.  The usual dose is 4.5 mg taken at night before bed.
www.lowdosenaltrexone.org 
 

 B. SODIUM PHENYLBUTYRATE – DR. BURZYNSKI’S PROTOCOL:

Dr. Burzynski has gained a considerable reputation for reversing many different kinds of cancer.  His website of patient experiences contains a group of men who have been treated by his clinic for prostate cancer.  Many of the men have told their interesting story of how his protocol reversed their situation.  The website listing also had abbreviated listings for whether the men were taking PB (sodium phenylbutarate) or ANP (antineoplastins which Dr. Burzynski is known for), or both.  Many of the men have also given their email address.  Unfortunately, in trying to follow up on their cases, only one or two of the men still had active email addresses.  Some of the stories refer to an email address to a woman who coordinates the contacts.  In contacting her, she gave out active phone numbers of several men who had agreed to accept contacts.  

In speaking to five of the men by phone, and two by email, and obtaining their full story, it quickly became apparent that all of the men were also put on hormone therapy, mostly Casodex, most of the time.  Since hormone therapy by itself can cause a significant lowering of PSA, this additional therapy ends up confounding the results that might be able to be attained with PB or ANP alone.  One man’s story really stood out as he was taken off of Casodex for eight months, but when his PSA began to climb again, he was again put back on the hormone therapy. 

The research on PB is not insignificant though, and many studies have verified its anti-cancer abilities through glutamine depletion and cell differentiation therapy.  Anyone interested in reading a succinct summary of the actions of PB can read this link:  http://spb11.com/studies_cancer.html.

Sodium phenylbutyrate is a costly product.  These men, patients of Dr. Burzynski, were paying from $4000 to $6000 a month, for 8 months to up to several years for some men with really advanced cases.  

The American source for sodium phenylbutyrate is Scandinavian Formulas in Pennsylvania and their website is:  http://spb11.com/order.html.   Only pharmacies can order it under a doctor’s prescription.  It is sold in quantities of 100 grams, 1 Kilo and larger sizes.  It is still very costly and Dr. Burzynski’s prostate cancer patients were taking some of it 6 times a day, as it is quickly metabolized and only has effects for an hour or so.   Over time, though, those effects to ‘tame’ cancer cells can increase one’s chances of long term survival.  Several of the men dropped off the Burzynski protocol after a year or so, probably due to the cost of it, but maintained the hormone therapy which insurance paid for.   There were several men with long-term success, which is encouraging, although there certainly are many men with long-term success who are taking hormone therapy along with supporting dietary plans and supplements.

C.  THE SELENIUM STORY:  HELPS TO PREVENT BUT  MAY MAKE  PC MORE AGGRESSIVE ONCE ESTABLISHED;

Benefits in using the mineral Selenium as an anti-cancer nutrient to both reduce cancer incidence (by 37%) and cancer mortality (by 50%) in patients was first demonstrated in a clinical trial that ended in 1996.  This first NCI (National Cancer Institute) study used a selenium yeast based product and obtained those exciting cancer inhibiting results.  The next large study the NCI sponsored with selenium, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) began in 2000 and was designed to end in 2013.  Instead of using the same yeast selenium that was used in the first trial, with its successful results, this study used selenium methionine.  As Dr. Richard Passwater, Ph.D. stated in his article. A Look at the Pertinent Facts of Selenium and Prostate Cancer Studies, in the December 2008, Whole Foods Magazine, this particular form of selenium is easily utilized by the body for body proteins, but this form can bypass the forming of anticancer selenium compounds.  As Dr. Passwater reports, there are several forms of selenium and they can vary over a
thousand-fold in their ability to prevent cancers.  This last NCI study also used a synthetic form of vitamin E instead of the succinate or gamma-tocopherol form which other research has found to be more effective against prostate cancer.  Dr. Passwater’s detailed critique of the SELECT study can be read at:  www.drpasswater.com/nutrition_library/select.html

Research has shown that the cancer fighting potential of selenium compounds comes from their ability to form a selenium metabolite called methylselenol.   The supplement form of selenium that most easily converts into this form is Se-methylselenocysteine, SeMSC.  This is the form of selenium that is in broccoli and garlic when they are grown on selenium rich soil.   Here is a brief article that summarizes some of the specific benefits of SeMSC:
http://www.lifeextensionvitamins.com/noname9.html

Selenium May Worsen Prostate Cancer!
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers have discovered some disturbing information about levels of selenium in prostate cancer patients.  They have found that about 75% of men that have a more aggressive prostate cancer have a variant of a gene that makes a powerful enzyme in the body.  Since there is no simple way to presently know which genetic variant a man has, the better “AA” form of the SOD2 gene, or the more dangerous “V” form, it is best to just discontinue all selenium supplementation.   Here is a link to an article about this discovery:
http://advancedprostatecancer.net/?cat=24&paged=3

DISCLAIMER:  The author of this article offers the contained information only for educational purposes.  It is not intended to be used as a means to diagnose, prescribe, or treat any health condition.  The information contained in this article is not intended to be used for self-treatment or to replace consultation with a qualified health care provider.  Individuals suffering from any disease or illness should consult with a physician or health care professional.  Neither the Brewer Science Library nor the author assume any responsibility for the implementation by anyone of any of the information contained in this article.

DISCLAIMER: The information contained on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration.  It is not meant to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.  Individuals suffering from any disease or illness should consult with a physician or health care professional.  The Brewer Science Library offers Dr. Brewer’s writings for information purposes only and will assume no responsibility or liability for the use of any of the information we offer whether written by Dr. Brewer or others.     

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